Tuesday, January 17, 2012

IMPROVING THE STUDENTS’ DESCRIPTIVE PARAGRAPH WRITING ABILITY THROUGH DRAW LABEL CAPTION (DLC) TECHNIQUE AT THE FIRST GRADE OF SMAN 1 BANJAR MARGO ACADEMIC YEAR 2011/2012

CHAPTER I
INTRDUCTION

1.1.    Background of the Problem

English is as the international language that is widely used in the world. It can be used to communicate, interact, and negotiate with others. It has become an international language that is almost used by all countries as the first, the second or the foreign language. Moreover English has been declared as a formal language on International communication for a long time ago.

In Indonesian English is the first foreign language. It means that English is a compulsory learning subject where must be taught for the students in the school from the elementary school until university. Mastering English as a foreign language of course is not as simple as learning English as a national language. Teacher and students must master and understand what the technique that suitable to be used in English teaching and learning process. Learning English with suitable technique can help the students to understand English material well.

Writing is one of the basic language skills that should be mastered by Senior High School students. Writing is language skill that can be used to communicate and to express with others in written form (paper). So it is the basic skill that very important for the student.
In teaching writing, there are some materials; one of them is about descriptive paragraph. Descriptive paragraph is to entertain, to gain and hold a readers' interest. To write descriptive paragraph is not easy or simple as the students have been known. Writing descriptive paragraph will be more easy and quickly to be received and understood by the students if the teacher uses the suitable technique. One of the teaching techniques that can be used in writing descriptive paragraph is Draw Label Caption (DLC) technique.

Draw Label Caption (DLC) technique is the technique that students draw a picture, label everything in the picture, and then give an overall caption or summary of what is happening in the picture. This is a great technique that students can write descriptions of everything they have labeled the actions and help the students capture a scene and focus on important details.

Based on data of learn result of students’ at class X the first semester Senior High School  State 1 Banjar Margo.

Table 1.1 Average score of the students writing ability in SMAN I Banjar Margo at years 2011.
Score    Range    Percentage    Remarks
A    8 - 10    9%    High
B    6 – 7,9    27%    Medium
C    4  - 5,9    64 %    Low
Source: English Teacher Guide Book of SMAN I Banjar Margo.


Based on table above, many students of SMAN I Banjar Margo get low score on descriptive paragraph writing ability. The average of score is sixty-three from fourty students. So, they did not pass of descriptive paragraph writing ability. This problem is caused by less of vocabulary mastery of student so they did not know the full meaning of text. Vocabulary mastery is important matter for writing. More and more vocabulary mastery, student can write something that they want.

    In learning writing, there is not pre-writing to discover students’ knowledge to the text. The example of pre-writing is giving some questions before writing text. The method of writing learning is not interesting so they are bored to follow the lesson. If the method is not appropriate, the student does not focus to write a text. The big problem is descriptive paragraph writing ability student is not maximal. It can make score of writing ability is low. Student of SMAN I Banjar Margo is very low on grammar so they are false to write the text because grammar is one of important thing on writing ability.

Based on background above, the writer solved improving the students’ descriptive paragraph writing ability through draw label caption (DLC) technique at the first grade of SMAN 1 Banjar Margo. Writer carried out an improving writing ability.


1.2.    Problem Identification
Referring to the background of the study above, the problems can be identified as follows:
1)    The students have low motivation in writing.
2)    The students are not able to write correctly.
3)    The students have low vocabulary.
4)    The students are not interested in the writing materials.
5)    The Students cannot convert the Presentation Practice Production technique into a descriptive paragraph.

1.3.    Problem limitation
The researcher realized that it is not possible to investigate all of the problems concerned with the writing ability. Therefore, the writer limits the problems only to “improving students’ descriptive paragraph writing ability through Draw Label Caption (DLC) technique at the first grade of SMAN l Banjar Margo”.

1.4.    Problem Formulation
Based on the problem above, the researcher formulates the problem in this research as follows:
1)    Can DLC technique be used to improve the students’ descriptive paragraph writing ability at SMAN l Banjar Margo?
2)    How much significant DLC technique can improve students’ descriptive paragraph writing ability?
1.5.    Research objective
The objective of the research is to find out:
1)    To know whether  DLC  technique  is effective to increase descriptive paragraph writing ability.
2)    To uncover how much significant group DLC technique improve students’ descriptive paragraph writing ability.

1.6.    Research Scope
This research was conducted in the first grade of SMAN l Banjar Margo because this class has low score on descriptive paragraph writing ability.
The scopes of the research are follows:
1)    This research is a classroom action research (CAR) which will be conducted in two cycles.
2)    The subject of the research is the first grade of SMAN l Banjar Margo.
3)    The object of the research is students’ descriptive paragraph writing ability.
4)    Place of the research is SMAN l Banjar Margo.
1.7.    Research Benefit
After doing this research, the researcher hopes that it may be useful as:
1)    For the students
    The students will get easy technique to write something by using Draw Label Caption (DLC) technique.
2)    For the teacher
    To give information for the English teacher, especially in the first grade of SMAN l Banjar Margo, that Draw Label Caption (DLC) technique is more effective to be used in teaching descriptive paragraph writing ability.
3)    For the researcher
    The researcher will know about the students’ descriptive paragraph writing ability especially by using Draw Label Caption (DLC) technique and the research can carry out the technique to the next teaching and learning in the classroom.
  

CHAPTER II
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK


2.1.    Previous Research Overview
In this research, the first research proposed here is the Khoirul Anam’s entitled “A Comparative Study between the Use of Draw Label Caption (DLC) Strategy and Presentation Practice Production Strategy in Increasing the Students’ Narrative Paragraph Writing Ability at the eighth grade students of State Junior High School 2 Metro in the academic year of 2010/2011)”

The aim of the thesis is to know the differences of the students’ achievement between the use of Draw Label Caption (DLC) strategy and Presentation Practice Production in increasing narrative paragraph writing ability and to compare, how effective is draw label caption to enhance students’ narrative paragraph writing ability, and which part of students’ writing ability is improved by DLC technique.

This is quantitative research design in the form of experimental research. The researcher uses test as the data collection method. To investigate whether there is a positive and significant comparative study between experimental class and control class the researcher analyzed the data by using t-test formula.

It can be reflected, based on research finding, that is mean that using Draw Label Caption (DLC) strategy gives more positive effect increase the students’ narrative paragraph writing ability at the eight grade students of State Junior high School 2 Metro in the academic year of 2010/2011.

The second, this statement is sustained by  Nilawati Idrus, entitled “Developing Students’ Descriptive Paragraph Writing through Pictures At SMA YP Unila” , the 2006 English curriculum for senior high school stated that the students are able to write at least ten sentences in descriptive paragraph writing. Therefore, one of the goals of the teaching English as senior  high school is to develop the students paragraph writing. Writing is the most difficult language skill to master. This is because, this skill involves, content , grammar, and vocabulary. This research was conducted at SMA Negeri 1 Metro. The class X1 IPA was used as the sample of the research.The class consisted of the 30 students. The research design was one pre- test, post-test design. Three times of the treatment were conducted to the class. The result of the analysis showed that  picture could significantly improve the students’ descriptive paragraph writing. The total score of the pre-test was 1200. And, the total score of post-test was 1915, the means of the pre-test was 40,0, of the post-test was 63,8. It meant that picture could increase students, descriptive paragraph, and the highest increase is in grammar aspect. In addition, the results of  t-test showed t-ratio was higher than t-table, that is 12.20>2.46. It meant that there was a significant difference.The writer suggests English teacher apply picture as one technique in teaching descriptive paragraph writing and find appropriate material based on the students’ level and background.  

Based on the researchers above, in this research the researcher interests to find out whether there is the difference between of Using Draw Label Caption (DLC) And Presentation Practice Production Technique toward the Students’ Descriptive Paragraph Writing Ability.

2.2 Theoretical Review
2.2.1    Draw Label Caption (DLC) Technique
a.    Concept
The word technique in Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, (2000:1388) can be defined as:
1)    A particular way of doing something, especially one in which you have to learn special skills,
2)    The skill with which somebody is able to do something practical.

The word techniques in www.merriam-webster.com dictionary/technique are:
a)    The manner in which technical details are treated (as by a writer) or basic physical movements are used (as by a dancer)
b)     A body of technical methods (as in a craft or in scientific research)
c)     A method of accomplishing a desired aim.

From the statement above, the writer can conclude that technique is a learning activity that should be done by the teacher or student in order to the aim of learning can be effectively and successfully. Technique also is the easy plan of operation to get something important in educational term, especially in English subject.

Below is the definition about the draw-label-caption technique.
a.     Draw
In Oxford Learner’s Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2000: 400) the word draw is defined as:
1)    To make pictures, or a picture of something, with a pencil, pencil or chalk (but not paint).
2)    To move something/somebody by pulling it or them gently.
3)    To pull a vehicle such as carriage.

Moreover Steve Peha (2003: 47) states that draw is making a quick pencil sketch of your scene. Based on the quotation above, it can be inferred that draw is the activity make a picture with using a toll (s) with the certain object and purpose.

b.    Label
Etymologically, the word “label” in Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2000: 747) of Current English can be defined as:
1)    A piece of paper, act. That is attached to something and gives information about it.
2)    A word or phrase that is used to describe somebody/something in a way that seems too general, unfair or not correct.
3)    A company that produces and cells records, CDs, etc”

In addition, Steve Peha (2003: 47) defines label as “create a one or two word text label for each item in your drawing.”

From the quotation above, the writer assumes that label is a word or more that can be used to give a name for an object.

c.    Caption
In Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2000: 185) the word caption is defined as “words that are printed underneath a picture, cartoon, etc. that explain or describe it.” Based on the quotation above, it can be inferred that caption is a phrase that can be the main or topic of the paragraph. From the explanation about the definition of each words Draw Label Caption (DLC) technique above, can be explained of the theory of Draw Label Caption (DLC) technique.

According to Michael Hutagulung in www.englishadvantage.info/lesson-plans/draw-label-caption “Draw Label Caption (DLC) technique is the both a lesson plan and pre-writing technique that can help the students brainstorm before writing a functional story or a personal narrative. It can also be used to introduce new vocabulary or review vocabulary. The basic technique is those students draws a picture, then label everything in the picture and then give an overall caption or summary of what is happening in the picture.”

Moreover Steve Peha (2003: 47) explains that “drawing for writing is a little different than normal drawing because it has a purpose.”

Based on the definition above, the writer can conclude that Draw Label Caption (DLC) technique is the technique that can help the students capture a scene and focus on important details about the writing their event or activity. Because the students in this technique have three steps and every step has a purpose in writing process.
With using this technique can be founded the general, specific word and also about the topic of the sentence in a paragraph. The students can draw from their own mind that relate with the topic. When the students take a few minutes to sketch a quick picture, the students give themselves a chance to focus on the students’ topic and can make their writing richer and more detailed.

b.    Process
In a technique has process that is started from beginning until the last. The purpose of the processes is to get a good value. So, in Draw Label Caption (DLC) technique also has process that should be done for the students before they write a paragraph. The students can follow the step process in this technique. Below is the explanation about the steps process of this technique.
According to Steve Peha (2003: 47-48) to achieve the purpose in writing process there are three steps process in Draw Label Caption (DLC) technique, like this:
•    Draw, make a quick pencil sketch of your scene. This is a rough sketch: use outlines only, stick people are encouraged. Try to include as many little details as you can.
•    Label, create a one- or two-word text label for each item in your drawing. Label everything you can think of, even different parts of things.
•    Caption, write a single sentence underneath the picture that tells what is happening. This can be a very simple sentence or something more complicated if you’re up for it.

SCHEME OF DRAW-LABEL-CAPTION (DLC) STRATEGY
Draw-Label-Caption








CAPTION

From the third process in Draw Label Captain (DLC) technique above, the writer can conclude that this strategy have three steps, namely: first, draw a picture that will be the main idea of their story, second label as many words as possible around the picture, and then write a caption in the bottom of the picture to go along with the picture (start with a phrase), after that make a sentence from the label and the last each sentence can be included into a descriptive paragraph.
Steve Peha (2003: 51) suggested that "There are some tips to develop the students writing ability on the Draw Label Caption technique, namely:
•    Don’t be shy about drawing. Drawing can really help in preparation for writing, will be much more focus, will have better command of the details and while you’re drawing, will spend several minutes thinking about what you want to say.
•    Really get into the labeling. I’ve already talked about how each label can be turned into a detail in your piece, and how each detail can then be turned into a sentence or two.
•    Redo a picture for your cover. I think it’s cool to put an illustrated cover on your piece when it’s finished. Why not take one of your drawings and redo it? You can use color, fill things in, add details, etc. The picture you choose might even suggest a title for your piece.
•    Explore the fine art of caption writing. If you want to learn a lot about revising sentences, put in some work on your caption. Captions are short and you can revise them quickly and easily.
•    Use dialog and thought bubbles. You can treat your picture as though it was a panel in a comic strip. Use dialog bubbles to show people talking. Use thought bubbles to show people thinking.”

Based on the some tips above, now the students can try to use this technique to develop their writing. The following passage below is the example of writing a paragraph that uses this technique:

Example 1:
Draw
The following passage below is the drawing a picture. Draw a picture that will be the main idea of the story.
Figure 1
The Example of Drawing a picture

Label
The following example below is the label about the picture. Label as many words as possible around the picture.
Figure 2
The Example of Label

Caption
Now have the students write a one sentence caption for their pictures-what is the main scene or action? What is this story about? For my picture, I would caption it:
Yesterday I played tennis in my living room.
Descriptions
Have students write descriptions of everything in their picture. Encourage them to think about colors, smells, textures, materials. Push them to be as detailed as possible. Using my picture as an example, I might write:
LIVING ROOM: My living room was large. My living room was yellow. There was a sofa and 2 chairs in there. The living room was the biggest room in the house.
ME: I played Tennis with my wife. It was fun. We played against each other. We liked to win.
TENNIS: The game was funny. The men had no arms. They were cartoon men. You could jump high. It was hard to play.
REMOTE: When you moved it, your tennis racket moved. It fell like a real game. The remote was white.

Complete Story
Now students have more than enough material to write a complete scene or story. They will have to pick and choose which details are important and put it together into a complete narrative or topic. For example:

Figure 3
The Example of draw and label
          
   Yesterday I like to play tennis in my living room.
Yesterday I liked to play tennis in my living room. My living room was large. My living room was yellow. There was a sofa and 2 chairs in there. The living room was the biggest room in the house. I played Tennis with my wife. It was fun. We played against each other. We liked to win. The game was funny. The men had no arms. They were cartoon men. You could jump high. It was hard to play. When you moved it, your tennis racket moved. It fell like a real game. The remote was white.

Example 2:
Figure 4
       The Example of using Draw Label Caption Strategy


 I’m just about to throw the Frisbee and my dog is going to go after it.
 From label to sentences:
The following passage below is the development the labels into sentences:
ME - I’m about to throw the Frisbee. This is my favorite game to play with my dog. I love to see him chase it down and catch it in his mouth before it hits the ground.
SWEATER - It’s cold out but I’ve got a thick wool sweater on.
MY HAIR - The wind is blowing my hair all over the place.
WIND - It’s unusually windy today. I’m throwing into the wind because I’m afraid that if I throw it the other way, the Frisbee will go too far.
TREES - The big trees in the park are swaying from side to side. Some of the leaves are falling off.
BIRDS - There are birds flying above the trees. I wonder how they can fly in wind like this?
MY DOG - My dog is excited and ready to go. He knows that when I get the Frisbee out that we’re going to play one of his favorite games.
TAIL - He’s wagging his tail like crazy. That means he’s really happy. He can’t wait to tear off after the Frisbee.
PAWS - He can’t keep his paws still. He’s scratching at the dirt and getting ready to run.
 From the sentences to a paragraph:
The following passage below is the development the sentences into a paragraph:
I’m about to throw the Frisbee. This is my favorite game to play with my dog. I love to see him chase it down and catch it in his mouth before it hits the ground. Its cold out but I’ve got a thick wool sweater on. The wind is blowing my hair all over the place. It’s unusually windy today. I’m throwing into the wind because I’m afraid that if I throw it the other way, the Frisbee will go too far. The big trees in the park are swaying from side to side. Some of the leaves are falling off. There are birds flying above the trees. I wonder how they can fly in wind like this. My dog is excited and ready to go. He knows that when I get the Frisbee out that we’re going to play one of his favorite games. He’s wagging his tail like crazy. That means he’s really happy. He can’t wait to tear off after the Frisbee. He can’t keep his paws still. He’s scratching at the dirt and getting ready to run.


2.2.    Theoretical Review
2.2.1    Writing Ability
a.    Concept of  Writing Ability
The word ability in Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, As Hornby (2000:2) can be defined as:

1)    To do something the fact that somebody/something is able to do something.
2)    A level of skill or intelligence.
Not only that, the word ability in “www.thefreedictionary.com/ability” can be defined as:
1. The quality of being able to do something, especially the physical, mental, financial, or legal power to accomplish something.
2.  A natural or acquired skill or talent.
3. The quality of being suitable for or receptive to a specified treatment; capacity: the ability of a computer to be configured for use as a file server.


 Based on the definition above, the writer can conclude that ability is a talent or skill which is owned by a person to do activities in her or his life.

According to Paul Davies in Sanggam Siahaan (2008: 2), “writing is probably the linguistic skill that is least use by most people in their native language.”
While Sanggam Siahaan (2008: 2) states “writing is the skill of a writer to communicate information to a reader or group of readers. Her or his skill is also realized by his or her ability to apply the rules of the language s/he is writing to transfer the information s/he has in her or his mind to her or his readers (s) effectively.”

From the quotations above, the writer can conclude that writing is the activity transfer the information to the others in written form. Writing also is the act or art of forming letter and characters in a place or something for the purpose of recording the ideas which characters and word express, communicating them to others by visible signs.

From the statement above is probably from the readers’ point of view. To writers, on the other hand, writing can be a means of communication. Through writing, they can express his ideas, experiences, thoughts, and feeling. It is even through writing that they can communicate over long distance and period.
Moreover Kasihani K.E Suyanto (2007: 68) explains that” "writing ability is very difficult, because involving ability or mastery of grammar, vocabulary, and spelling. This is skills or logical way of thinking and skill mix words into meaningful sentences. In addition to a coherent sentence structure and clear content, punctuation is also important in the English language. "

It can be said that writing is a crucial part in our global society. Let us imagine how this world is without writing. Through writing, we can learn a lot of things, from the simplest one such as how to make a glass of milkshake until how this earth is formed, for example. In short, writing plays a significant role in our life.
b.    Concept of Paragraph
According to Sanggam Siahaan (2008: 5) “Paragraph is a piece of written text. It contains several sentences. It can be classified in to three parts: they are the beginning, the body and the ending.
Barli Bram (1995: 13) defines paragraph as “a good one, as a group of sentences which contain relevant information about one main or central idea.
Moreover Joy M. Reid (1988: 8) states “paragraph is a series of sentences that develop one idea. In U.S. academic prose that idea is usually stated in general form in one sentence, called topic sentence. That topic sentence tells your audience what to expect in the paragraph.
Based on the definition above, the writer can conclude that the definition of paragraph is group of sentences or smallest unit of prose that contain relevant information about one mind or central idea.
The paragraph consists of three parts, namely: introduction or the beginning, body and conclusion. Here are the explanations from Sanggam Siahaan (2008: 5-6) about three parts in the paragraph:
“The first part is introduction or the beginning. Commonly it only has one sentence. It is the most important sentence in the paragraph. It functions as the introductory sentence. Technically it is also called the topic sentence.
The second part is called the body. It contains several supporting sentences. Each of these sentences elaborates the topic sentence. Writers usually classify them into some types according to their function. The first type is called the major supporting sentences. Each of them is about each main point of the divisions of the topic sentence. They are directly related to the topic sentences. The second type is called the minor supporting sentences. A major supporting sentence may have one or more than one minor supporting sentence. Each of them is about the major supporting sentence they elaborate. They directly relate to the major supporting sentence. They also elaborate the topic sentence, but they directly relate to it. In a complicated, a minor supporting sentence may also have one or more than one sub-minor supporting sentence.
The third part is the ending. It is a complete sentence. It concludes the development of the paragraph. It closes the paragraph. As the ending it is always at the end of the paragraph. Technically, it is also called concluding sentence. It can be defined then that a paragraph is a piece of writing which contains a topic sentence, some supporting sentence, and a concluding sentence.”

Based on the explanation above, the paragraph consist of three parts, they are introduction or beginning of a paragraph as the topic sentence, the body or the development of a paragraph as the supporting sentence and the ending of a paragraph as the concluding sentence.
There are seven types of paragraph, such as: narration, exposition, definition, classification, description, analysis, and persuasion. In this research will be explained just about the narration paragraph.

c.    Concept of Description Paragraph

The word ability in Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2000:357) can be defined as:
1)    A piece of writing or speech that say what somebody or something is like; the act of writing or saying in words what somebody or something is like,
2)    Of some, all, every, etc. of some etc. type: boats of every description or all descriptions: a description somebody or something to be like a particular or thing.
According to Alice Oshima Ann Hogue (2007:73) a description is a word picture. It tells the reader how something looks, feels, smells, tastes, and sounds.

In “www.pdffactory.com”, a description paragraph, you are writing about what a person, place, or thing is like. Sometimes, you may describe where a place is located.

The following words can help you to write a good description paragraph:
Helper Words:


Properties
Size: Polar bears are big in size.
Color: Polar bears are usually white in color.
Shape: Polar bears have a special shape.
Purpose: The purpose of the polar bear's fur is to keep it warm.
Measurement
Length: The length of a polar bear's claws is 20 cm.
Width: The width of a polar bear's head is about 50 cm.
Mass / weight: Polar bears weigh up to 650 kg.
Speed: Polar bears can swim at a speed of 40 km per hour.
Analogy
Is like: A polar bear is like other bears in shape.
Resembles: A polar bear resembles other bears in shape.
Location
In: Most of Canada's manufacturing is located in Ontario and Quebec.
Above: The ceiling is above us.
Below: Most of Ontario is below Hudson Bay.
Beside: Quebec is located beside Ontario.
Near: Many companies are located near Toronto.
North / east / south / west: Ontario is west of Quebec.

Based on the statement above, the writer can conclude that descriptive paragraph is a paragraph  that tell or describe us more about something in order to enable the reader as if can experience it as he or she does. In this case, the function of descriptive paragraph is to describe what is being something to the readers.
2.3     Using Draw Label Caption (DLC) Technique to Increase The Students’ Descriptive Paragraph Writing Ability
Technique is the way for learners to solve problems encountered in constructing meaning in any context. Unlike skills, strategies chosen by learners are modified to fit the demands of the learning situation. Strategic learners know how and when to alter, modify, combine, and test individual strategies against their prior knowledge, beliefs, and experiences.
Sanggam Siahaan (2008: 221) explains that students who are taught with a strategy are more highly motivated than those who are not and can be lead to a more effective learning (Nunan, 1999:172). The reason why it is effective, as according to killen (1998; v), is that a teaching strategy includes: what a teacher does, the way in instruction is organized, how much the students are involved actively in learning, how much the students are responsible for the learning, and how learning is assed. This tells that a strategy is a teaching agenda that indicates the direction of the classroom activities to help the students make an achievement of certain knowledge and skill on a certain language aspect. A teaching strategy is associated with a certain teaching material and the classroom teachers are suggested to use the suitable strategy to make an effect on the achievement of the students on the teaching material to construct a certain knowledge and skill such as listening, speaking, reading and writing.

Based on the quotation above, it can be explained that teach and learn English with using technique can motivate and improve the students to study English. The students also can be easy to understand the material subject that will be teach the teacher, more active in the class and so it can make the English teaching and learning process will be more effective.

Moreover, the influence of Draw Label Caption technique toward writing ability can be explained as follows:

Draw Label Caption (DLC) technique is a technique that refers to the use of several steps that draw, label and caption, and then developed into a paragraph, whose purpose is to accelerate the development of individual student initiative, self confidence, self-improvement and self-learning plan the student.
The influence between narrative paragraph concept and Draw Label Caption (DLC) technique, this technique is appropriate for the students to improve their ability in writing skill, especially to get supporting detail in narrative paragraph and also can help the teacher in order to teaching and learning process in the class can be run well.
According to Michael Hutagulung in www.englishadvantage.info  “Draw Label Caption technique is the both a lesson plan and pre-writing technique that can help the students brainstorm before writing a functional story or a personal narrative. It can also be used to introduce new vocabulary or review vocabulary. The basic technique is that students’ draws a picture then label everything in the picture and then give an overall caption or summary of what is happening in the picture. Now they can write description of everything they have labeled and the action. Now they have a complete description of a scene or even a complete story.”

Based on the explanation about the Draw Label Caption (DLC) and descriptive paragraph writing ability, the teacher must teach the students to get supporting detail by imagine finding out the main idea to make a descriptive paragraph.

The procedures of teaching descriptive paragraph by using Draw Label Caption technique are:
a)    The students must understand about Draw Label Caption (DLC) and Presentation Practice Production technique.
b)    The students identify descriptive paragraph by using Draw-Label Caption (DLC) and Presentation Practice Production technique.
c)    The students write descriptive paragraph by using Draw Label Caption (DLC) and Presentation Practice Production technique.
From the explanation above, it can be inferred that the use of Draw Label Caption and Presentation Practice Production technique can increase the students’ descriptive paragraph writing ability.


2.3 Thinking Framework
DLC is effective to increase motivated to learn about grammar a high concentration to learning process to be counters, so the learning process will from be provided wider space for students express and their potency to develop more intensively.

                            X = DLC technique
                                          Y = Descriptive paragraph

Picture I :Thinking framework DLC and PPP technique toward Descriptive paragraph



2.4 Hypothesis
Based on the theoretical framework, the researcher would like to formulate the hypothesis as follow:
1.    Using discussion technique can improve students’ speaking ability.
2.    Using group discusion technique can not improve students’ speaking ability.

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD
3.1 Research Design

In this research, the researcher uses classroom action research (CAR). Mc Niff (1992) in Arikunto (2006:102) states that action research is a form of self-reflective inquiry undertaken by participants in a social (including educational) situation in order to improve the rationality and justice of their own social or educational practices as well as their understanding of these practices and the situations in which these practices are carried out. It consists of planning, acting/implementing, observing, and reflecting.

Furthermore, Kasbolah (2001:15-17) states that there are four characteristics of action research; firstly, the action research is carried out by practitioners rather than outside researcher. In this research, the classroom action research was carried out by the researcher and English teacher as the collaborator. Secondly, action research is the systematic study attempting to overcome real problems. In this research the classroom action research (CAR) was the attempts to overcome students’ problem in speaking mastery. Thirdly, the action research is intended to change thing to be better than before. In this research, the class action research (CAR) was intended to change the students’ ability in speaking mastery to be better than before. Fourthly, action research is a kind of collaborative research, it means that the research take participants in the form of a team consisting of insider and outsiders. Then insiders were some teachers who want to do action research and outsiders were the researchers in their field.

In this research, the classroom action research (CAR) was done by the researcher and the English teacher. In this Classroom Action Research (CAR), the writer used the CAR principle to collect the data. The research consist of three cycles with each cycle consist of four elements. The researcher describes the cycles through the scheme of action research steps and each of the phases can be explained briefly as follows:















The cycle of Classroom Action Research (Hopkins, 1993: 52)
a. Planning
In this phase, the writer makes the lesson plan and then chooses teaching aids to imply the information DLC technique. In this phase, the researcher makes picture, short paragraph, describe and draw material.
b. Acting
The teacher puts the class into four groups, calling them 1, 2, 3, and 4. To each group the researcher gives one of the pictures. The students in the groups have to describe everything they can about the pictures-which’s in them, what’s happening etc. They can write about the details in their groups. The teacher now takes the pictures and asks for one student from each group (1, 2, 3, and 4) to form a new four person group. He tells them that they have seen different picture but that the pictures taken together. The task is for the students to work out what the story is. The only way they can do this is by describing their pictures to each other and speculating on how they are connected. The final stories may be different. The groups write on a piece of paper and show the whole class what their version is, and the teacher can finally reshow the pictures.
c. Observing
In this phase, the researcher observes the students response, participation and everything which is found during the teaching and learning process. In writing learning process, most of the students are interested in information DLC technique. Sometimes, from one group to other group do a mistake, like: misunderstanding, usability to memorize the story.
d. Reflecting
After collecting the data, the researcher will evaluate the teaching-learning process. Then, the researcher will reflect herself by seeing the result of the observation, whether the teaching learning process of writing using information DLC technique is good to imply in teaching learning process at SMA N 1 Banjar Marga in Academic Year 2011/2012 or not. If the first plan is unsuccessful, the researcher should make the next plan (re-planning) to get a good result.

During the process of the action research in the first class of SMA N 1 Banjar Margo, the researcher uses the diary and document as the instrument for gathering the data.

Diaries contain personal accounts of the observation on feeling, reaction, interpretations, reflections, explanations and documents are used to provide information, which is relevant to the problem under investigation. The documents used by the researcher are lesson plan and the sample of children’s work. Mc Cormick James (1983) in (Tilston, 2002:52) state that the successful document used is still photography in the collection on information, particularly when evidence is being collected to evaluate lessons. So, the researcher includes the photography as the document too.

Furthermore, Kasbolah (2001:15-17) states that there are four characteristics of action research; firstly, the action research is carried out by practitioners rather than outside researcher. In this research, the classroom action research was carried out by the researcher and English teacher as the collaborator. Secondly, action research is the systematic study attempting to overcome real problems. In this research the classroom action research (CAR) was the attempts to overcome students’ problem in speaking mastery. Thirdly, the action research is intended to change thing to be better than before. In this research, the class action research (CAR) was intended to change the students’ ability in writing ability to be better than before. Fourthly, action research is a kind of collaborative research, it means that the research take participants in the form of a team consisting of insider and outsiders. Then insiders were some teachers who want to do action research and outsiders were the researchers in their field. In this research, the classroom action research (CAR) was done by the writer and the English teacher.

3.2 Research Variable

According to Arikunto (2010: 161) a variable is object of research. The dependent variable is variable which has one observes and measure to determine the effect of the independent variable (the major variable) is the variable, which is selected, manipulated and measured by the research. There are two kinds of variables in this research that will be investigated, they are: consist some variables, they are:

1)    The independent variable
The independent variable of this research is DLC symbolized by X. Group discussion technique is away where teacher gives opportunity to the students to do scientific conversation in order to give opinion or idea and make summary of the problem.
2)    The dependent variable
The dependent variable of this research is descriptive paragraph writing ability symbolized by (Y)

3.3 Research Population and Sample
3.3.1 Research Population

According to Yonges Kumarsingh (2006: 82), “population or universe means the entire mass of observation, which is the parent group from which a sample is to be formed”.

Based on the definition above, it means that the population is the whole subject that will be researched in the research. The population in this research is the students at the first grade of SMAN l Banjar Margo academic year 2011/2012. There are six classes at the first semester of SMA N 1 Banjar Margo and each class is consist 30 students, but the researcher has determined one class randomly. 
   

3.3.2 Research Sample

According to Sugiyono (2009:81), “sample is part of the amount and characteristic which is owned by population”.
It means that sample is the part of population which presents that population which will be researched. Technique sampling that used is Cluster Random Sampling. Cluster Random Sampling is a technique to choose a sample from small groups. Cluster population is a subpopulation from total population.
Moreover based on the explanation above, the sample of the research is the researcher takes randomly of the class observation. The first step, the researcher chose one class from six classes’ randomly using a small paper that written name of class. Last, the chosen class is X2 and X4. Then, the chosen classes divided into experiment (X2) and control class (X4) randomly. Then, each class divided into two attribute groups. The groups are low and high motivation groups. To choose them, researcher gave students a questioner to know the motivation students about writing. Then rank the score of students based one low and high level.


The formula of Research Sample (Slovin Formula):
n = 
Notes:
n    : Total Sample
N    : Population
d    : Signification Level  (Signification level for education is 0.05)
n = 
   = 
   = 27.9 (28 students)
So, 28 students in class experiment and 28 students in class control.

3.4    Research Instrument

Gery Anderson (1998: 94) defines “an instrument includes test and questionnaire, observations schedules and any other tool used to collect data.” Furthermore, the research instrument involves:

1.    Pre-test
The pre-test has been administered to both experiment and control class. This test is given to know the first reading comprehension ability’s students. Type of pre-test is answering multiple choices about writing text.

2.    Post-test
The post-test is given after experiment and control class has been given treatment. The purpose of this test is to know level of students about lesson, especially writing ability in this research. The test is same with post-test but the number of questions is different and random.
1.2 Specification Table of Instrument Descriptive Paragraph Writing Ability (Y)
No    Research Variable    Indicator     Maximum Score     Validator
1.     Text Descriptive     Format:- 5 points
Title centered (2), First line of each paragraph indented (1), margins left on both sides (1), text double spaced (1)    10   
        Punctuation and Mechanics:- 5 points
Periods, commas, apostrophes, and quotation marks (3), capital letters (1), spelling (1)    10   
        Content:- 20 points
The essay fulfills the requirement of the assignment.
The essay is interesting.
The essay shows that the writer used care and thought.   
5

5
10   
        Organization: - 45 points
The essay follows the outline and it has an introduction, a body, and a conclusion
Introductory Paragraph: the introductory paragraph begins with several general sentences and ends with a thesis statement.
Body:
-    Each paragraph of the body discusses a new point and begins with a clear topic sentence.
-    Each paragraph has specific supporting material: facts, examples, questions, paraphrased, or summarized information, and so on.
-    Each paragraph has unity.
-    Each paragraph has coherence.
-    Transitions are used to link paragraph.
Concluding paragraph: 
The concluding paragraph summarize the main points or paraphrases the thesis statement, begins with a conclusion signal, and leaves the reader with the writer’s final thoughts on the topic.   

5




5




5



10



    5   
5

5



5   
         Total    45   
        Grammar and Sentence Structure - 25 Points
Estimate a grammar and sentence structure score        
Grand Total    100   

3.5 Data Collecting Technique
1) Test
According to Suharsimi Arikunto, (2006:150)  “test is a series of questions or exercises and other tools used to measure the skills, knowledge, intelligence or talent abilities possessed by individuals or groups.”

Based on the explanation above, the researcher uses test to collect the data. The researcher uses two meaner:
a)    Pre-test
Dealing with this test, pre-test in order to find out the students’ scores before the treatment will be applied. The task of pre-test is that the students are asked to answer multiple choices from writing ability.

b)    Post-test
Post-test will administer after treatment, is the attempt to measure how far the differs of the students’ writing ability using DLC and PPP technique. Judging from the average scores of pre-test and pos-test, the students’ ability in writing will appropriately is measured.
2) Documentation

Bambang Setiyadi, (2006: 249) defines documentation as the method which is used to get information in the private form and formal form. It can be written languages or documents, private form (such as photo, diary, private letter, story from the other people) and formal form (the score of the lesson, general letter, and others).

The writer uses the documentation method to get detail information about condition of the teacher, employers, and organization structure of SMAN1 Banjar Margo academic year 2011/2012.


Based on this definition, the researcher uses this technique to get detail information and the process of the events whiles the research at the first grade of SMAN 1 Banjar Margo academic year 2011/2012.

3.6 Data Analysis Technique
To investigate whether there is difference between the use of Draw Label Caption (DLC) technique (experimental class) and Presentation Practice Production technique (control class) toward the students’ descriptive paragraph writing ability at the first grade of SMAN 1 Banjar Margo academic year 2011/2012, the researcher analysis the data by normality test, homogeneity test, and hypothesis test.

Data analysis is the process of organizing the data in order to gain regularly of the pattern and form the research. The term interpretation can be defined as a procedure of giving meaning in the result of the analytic process. The data by using normality test, homogeneity test, and hypothesis test. The procedures to treat the data are:

3.6.1 Normality Test
The purpose of normality test is to know distribution of data following distribution normal or no. Some statistics technique especially parametric statistic said that the data must follow the normal distribution. The procedures of normality test using SPSS. They are (1) Enter the data into SPSS work sheet Data Editor. (2) Click Analyze menu – Descriptive Statistic – Frequencies. (3) Then will display the Frequencies dialog box. (4) In the Frequencies dialog box, move the variable into variable box. (5) Then click statistic menu. (6) In the Frequencies dialog box: the statistics chose and mark Skewness and Kurtosis on distribution part. (7) Then click continue, then OK.
To know the variable normal or no, compare Skewness value with Std. Error of Skewness or compare to Kurtosis value with Std. Error of Kurtosis. If the result of compare on distance -2 until 2, it means the data is normal. If the result is distance out of -2 until 2, it means the data is not normal.

3.6.2 Homogeneity Test
Homogeneity test is a measurement used to determine kind of data (Basrowi: 2007). This kind of test is intended to test whether the variance of the data in the Experiment class and in Control class is equal or not.
Ho   : Ho is accepted if F_ratio less or equal to F_ table means the variance of the data is homogeneous.
Ha   : Ha is accepted if F_ ratio higher than F_ table means the variance of the data is not homogeneous.

3.6.3 Hypothesis Test
Hypothesis test is calculated using two ways anova on SPSS program.
The formula of hypothesis test:



  









The procedures of hypothesis test using SPSS program. The procedures are (1) Open the SPSS data editor. (2) Enter the data on SPSS worksheet. (3) Click Analyze menu – Compare Means- Paired Sample T-Test. (4) So will display the Paired-Sample T-Test dialog box. (5) On the Paired-sample T-Test dialog box and move the variable. (6) OK.
The test is used to know whether the hypothesis proposed by the writer are accepted or rejected. The formula is:

S2    = (n1 – 1)S12 + (n2 -1)S2
    n1 +  n2 -2
X1    : the means of the experimental class.
X2    : the means of the control class.
S    : the standard deviation
n1        : the number of the students in the experimental class.
n2        : the number of the students in the control class.

The criteria are:
Ho   = Ho is accepted if T_ ratio is equal or higher than t_ table. (The hypothesis proposed is proved)
Ha   = Ha is accepted if t_ ratio is smaller than t_ table.(The hypothesis proposed is not proved).


REFERENCES
Anam, Khoirul. 2011. A Comparative Study between the Use of Draw Label Caption (DLC) Strategy and Presentation Practice Production Strategy in Increasing the Students’ Narrative Paragraph Writing Ability. Metro Lampung:  Unpublished Script.

Anderson, Gary.1998. Fundamentals of ducational research. The Falmer Press teachers Library: USA.

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As, Hornby. 2000. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. Oxford University Press: New York.

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Bram, Barli. 1995. Write Well. Kanisius: Yogyakarta.

Davies, Paul. 2002. Success in English teaching. Oxford University Press: New York.

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Webster, Marriam. The meaning of technique. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/technique, Accessed on December 2th 2010 at 20:15 PM. 

Idrus, Nilawati. 2004. Developing Srudents’ Descriptive Pragraph Writing     through Pictures At SMA YP Unila. Bandar Lampung: Unpublished Script.

Iskandarwassid and Sunendar, Dadang. 2008. Strategi Pembelajaran Bahasa. PT remaja Rosda Karya: Bandung.

Kumarsingh, Yongesh. 2006. Fundamental of Research Methodology and Statistics. New Age International (P) Limited: New Delhi.

K.E Suyanto, Kasihani. 2007. English for Young Learners. Bumi Aksara: Jakarta.

M. Reid, Joy. 1988.  The Process of Composition. Prentice-hall: Inc, New Jersey.

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Peha, Steve. 2003. The Writing Teacher’s Strategy Guide. Teaching That Making Sense: Inc, New York.

Sanjaya, Wina.2009. Strategi Pembelajaran Berorientasi Standar Proses Pendidikan. Kencana: Jakarta.

Siahaan, Sanggam.2008. Issues in Linguistics. Graha Ilmu: Yogyakarta.

Siahaan, Sanggam.2008. The English Paragraph. Graha Ilmu: Yogyakarta.

Sudijono, Drs., Anas.  2001.  Pengantar Statistic pendidikan.  Jakarta:  PT. Raja     Grafindo Persada.

Sugiyono.2009. Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif Kualitatif dan R&D. Alfabeta: Bandung.

Universitas Muhammadiyah Metro. 2011. Pedoman Khusus Penulisan Proposal Skripsi Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris. Edisi Revisi. Metro:Muhammadiyah University Press.

pdf Factory Pro trial version. Paragraph writing hand out. PDF created. www.pdffactory.com Accessed on October 20th 2010 at 07:30 PM.


2 comments:

Dwi_HePi said...

Ini thesisnya siapa kalo boleh tau? :)

Almi Filan said...

ini pnya steve peha ya ?

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